BÜHLMANN anti-MAG autoantibodies ELISA Citations

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Van den Bergh, P.Y.K., et al., 2021: European Academy of Neurology/Peripheral Nerve Society guideline on diagnosis and treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: Report of a joint Task Force—Second revision. Eur J Neurol. DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1111/ene.14959  

Boscarino M et al., 2020: Spinal Cord Impairment in anti-MAG Neuropathy: Evidence from Somato-sensory Evoked Potentials. Brain Sci. 10(282); 1-10
DOI: 10.3390/brainsci10050282

Colchester N T H et al., 2020: Chemoimunotherapy with rituximab, cyclophosphamide and prednisolone in IgM paraproteinaemic neuropathy: evidence of sustained improvement in electrophysiological, serological and functional outcomes. Haematologica 2020
[Epub ahead of print]
DOI: 10.3390/10.3324/haematol.2019.243139

Pascual-Goñi E et al., 2019: Clinical and laboratory features of anti-MASG neuropathy without monoclonal gammopathy. Sci Rep 16; 9(1):6155. doi 1038/s41598-019-42545-8
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-42545-8

Matà S et al., 2019: Anti-MAG IgM: differences in antibody tests and correlation with clinical findings.
Neurol Sci 41(2); 365-372
DOI: 10.1007/s10072-019-04089-7

Svahn J et al., 2018: Anti-MAG antibodies in 202 patients: clinicopathological and therapeutic features.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 89(5): 499-505.
DOI: 10.1136/jnnp-2017-316715

Garg N et al., 2018: Anti-MAG neuropathy: role of IgM antibodies, the paranodal junction and juxtaparanodal potassium channels. Clin Neurophysiol 129(10): 2162-2169
DOI: 10.1016/j.clinph.2018.07.021. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Patients with anti-MAG Neuropathy can be grouped were grouped categories into different categories. Basis is the titre of anti-MAG autoantibodies which can be determined by Autoantibody ELISA by BÜHLMANN. Clinical response to rituximab during 6-month and/or 7–12-month follow-up period was observed in 31.5% of patients and correlated with anti-MAG autoantibody titre of ≥ 10 000 BTU.

Briani C et al., 2018: Obinuzumab, a new anti-CD20 antibody, and Chlorambucil are active and effective in anti-MAG antibody polyneuropathy. Eur J Neurol 26(2): 371-375
DOI: 10.1111/ene.13838

Falzone YM et al., 2018: Functioning and quality of life in patients with neuropathy associated with anti-
MAG antibodies; J Neurol. 265(12): 2927-2933
DOI: 10.1007/s00415-018-9081-

D’Sa S et al., 2017: Investigation and Management of IgM and Waldenström-associated peripheral
neuropathies: recommendations from the IWWM-8 consensus panel. Brit J Haematol 176(5): 728-742
DOI: 10.1111/bjh.14492

Campagnolo M et al., 2017: IgM MGUS and Waldenstrom-associated anti-MAG neuropathies display similar response to rituximab therapy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 88(12): 1094-1097
DOI: 10.1136/jnnp-2017-315736

Nobile-Orazio E et al., 2017: Comparing treatment options for chronic inflammatory neuropathies and choosing the right treatment plan. 17(8): 755-765.
DOI: 10.1080/14737175.2017.1340832

Lozeron P et al., 2016: Is distal motor/or sensory demyelination a distinctive feature of anti-MAG neuropathy? J. Neurol 263: 1761-1770
DOI: 10.1007/s00415-016-8187-z

Magy L et al., 2015: Heterogeneity of Polyneuropathy Associated with Anti-MAG Antibodies.
J Immunol Res; 2015: 450391.
DOI: 10.1155/2015/450391

Stork A C J et al., 2014: Prevalence, specificity and functionality of anti-ganglioside antibodies in neuropathy associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy. J Neuroimmunol 268(1-2): 89-94.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2014.01.012

BÜHLMANN anti-MAG ELISA is described as a reliable quantitative tool to differentiate anti-MAG neuropathy into typical anti-MAG neuropathy and high titres of anti-MAG antibodies and CIDP-like neuropathy, negative Immune fluorescence (IF) results and low BTU titres.

Willison H J et al., 2011: Use of antibody testing in nervous system disorders. European Handbook of Neurological Management: volume 1, 2nd edition; chapter 6: 75-80.
DOI: 10.1002/9781444328394.ch6

Increase of sensitivity and determination by co-measurement of anti-MAG with -ganglioside antibodies, in patients with demyelinating neuropathies and IgM monoclonal antibodies (IgM-PNP).

Kuijf M et al., 2009: Detection of anti-MAG antibodies in polyneuropathy associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy. Neurology 73(9): 688-695.
DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181b59a80

The article evaluates service provision and quality assurance schemes for clinically useful autoantibody test in neurology. ELISA is a widely used technique for the determination of anti-glycolipid antibodies and anti-MAG autoantibody ELISA“has good standardisation.

Renaud S et al., 2003: Rituximab in the treatment of polyneuropathy associated with anti-MAG antibodies. Muscle Nerve 27(5): 611-615.
DOI: 10.1002/mus.10359

Excellent differentiation between healthy subjects and patients with a demyelinating neuropathy with immunoglobulin M (IgM) monoclonal gammopathy (IgM-PNP) with an area under the curve of 0.84


Monitoring Rituximab treatment is an important tool for patient management. During successful treatment, the measurement of anti-MAG autoantibodies by the BÜHLMANN assay shows significant decrease allowing follow-up of patients in therapy.

Castelani F et al., 2019: Ibrutinib in Neuropathy with anti-Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein (MAG) Antibody. “Peripheral Nerve Society” (PNS) Annual Meeting 2019 in Genova (IT)

Grecu N et al., 2019: Small Fiber involvement in anti-MAG demyelinating neuropathy – data from a small cohort. Peripheral Nerve Society” (PNS) Annual Meeting 2019 in Genova (IT)

Herrendorff R et al., 2018: Novel treatment opportunity for anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein neuropathy. Poster presented at 2018 “Peripheral Nerve Society” (PNS) Annual Meeting in Baltimore, MY (USA)

Delmont E et al., 2017: Value of anti-HNK-1 Antibodies in anti-MAG Neuropathies: an analysis of 144 sera. Poster presented at 2017 “Peripheral Nerve Society” (PNS) Annual Meeting in Sitges (ES)

“Anti-MAG Antibodies have good sensitivity and specificity to detect anti-MAG Neuropathy. Notably, titres of anti-HNK-1 antibodies are related to the disease activity”

Camdessanché JP et al., 2017: Therapeutic Management in 202 Patients. Poster presented at 2017 “Peripheral Nerve Society” (PNS) Annual Meeting in Sitges, (ES)

Neil J et al., 2017: Do anti-MAG titers have a good correlation with clinical status in IgM anti-MAG Neuropathy? Poster presented at 2017 “Peripheral Nerve Society” (PNS) Annual Meeting in Sites, (ES)

Further literature citing anti-MAG Autoantibodies ELISA by BÜHLMANN

Herrendorff R et al., 2017: Selective in vivo removal of pathogenic anti-MAG autoantibodies, an antigenspecific treatment option for anti-MAG neuropathy. PNAS,
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1619386114

Baron M et al., 2017: Plasma exchanges for acute neurological deterioration in patients with IgM anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein (anti-MAG) neuropathy. Journal of Neurology , 264(6): 1132-1135
DOI: 10.1007/s00415-017-8502-3

Doneddu P E et al., 2017: Deterioration of tremor after treatment with rituximab in anti-MAG neuropathy (Letter to the Editor) Journal of the Neurological Sciences 373: 344-345
DOI: 10.1016/j.jns.2016.12.029

Gesquière-Dando A et al., 2017: Are electrophysiological features related to disability in patients with anti-MAG neuropathy? Clinical Neurophysiology 47: 75-81
DOI: 10.1016/j.neucli.2017.01.002

Gazzola S et al., 2017: Predictive factors of efficacy of rituximab in patients anti-MAG neuropathy; Journal of the Neurological Sciences 377: 144-148
DOI: 10.1016/j.jns.2017.04.015

Fatehi F et al., 2017: Motor unit number index (MUNIX) in patients with anti-MAG neuropathy; Clinical Neurophysiology.
DOI: 10.1016/j.clinph.2017.04.022

Campagnolo M et al., 2017: IgM MGUS and Waldenstrom-associated anti-MAG neuropathies display similar response to rituximab therapy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 88(12): 1094-1097
DOI: 10.1136/jnnp-2017-315736

Gomez A and Hoffman J E, 2016: Anti Myelin-Associated-Glycoprotein Antibody Peripheral Neuropathy Response to Combination Chemoimmunotherapy with Bendamustine/Rituximab in a Patient with Biclonal IgM κ and IgM λ: Case Report and Review of the Literature.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 16(7): e101-108.
DOI: 10.1016/j.clml.2016.04.004

Stork A C J et al., 2016: Classical and lectin complement pathway activity in polyneuropathy associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy. J Neuroimmunol 290: 76-79
DOI: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2015.11.010

Ferfoglia R I et al., 2016: Long-term efficacy of rituximab in IgM anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein neuropathy: RIMAG follow-up study. J Peripher Nerv Syst 21(1): 10-14
DOI: 10.1111/jns.12156

Campagnolo M et al., 2015: Polyneuropathy with anti-sulfatide and anti-MAG antibodies: clinical, neurophysiological, pathological features and response to treatment. J Neuroimmunol 281: 1-4
DOI: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2015.02.009

Stork A C J et al., 2014: Clinical phenotype of patients with neuropathy associated with monoclonal gammopathy: a comparative study and a review of the literature. J Neurol 261(7): 1389-1404
DOI: 10.1007/s00415-014-7354-3

Sala E et al., 2014: Acute neurological worsening after Rituximab treatment in patients with anti-MAG neuropathy. J Neurol Sci 345(1-2):224-227
DOI: 10.1016/j.jns.2014.07.055

Bridel C et al., 2014: Multifocal motor neuropathy with high titers of anti-MAG antibodies.
J Peripher Nerv Syst 19(2): 180-182
DOI: 10.1111/jns5.12069

Hospital M A et al., 2013: Immunotherapy-based regimen in anti-MAG neuropathy: results in 45 patients. Haematologica 98(12): e155-157
DOI: 10.3324/haematol.2013.087213

Piscosquito G et al., 2013: Coexistence of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A and anti-MAG neuropathy. J Peripher Nerv Syst 18(2): 185-188
DOI: 10.1111/jns5.12029

Stork A C J et al., 2013: Rapid worsening of IgM anti-MAG demyelinating polyneuropathy during rituximab treatment. J Peripher Nerv Syst 18(2): 189-192
DOI: 10.1111/jns5.12018

Pihan M et al., 2012: [Neuropathies associated with monoclonal IgM anti-MAG antibodies].
Rev Med Interne; 33(12): 686-692
DOI: 10.1016/j.revmed.2012.05.009

Maurer M A et al., 2012: Rituximab induces sustained reduction of pathogenic B cells in patients with peripheral nervous system autoimmunity. J Clin Invest 122(4):1393-1402
DOI: 10.1172/JCI58743

Mostafa G A et al., 2012: Reduced serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D in children with autism: relation to autoimmunity. J Neuroinflammation 17(9): 201
DOI: 10.1186/1742-2094-9-201

Zara G et al., 2011: Neurophysiological and clinical responses to rituximab in patients with anti-MAG polyneuropathy. Clin Neurophysiol 122(12): 2518-2522
DOI: 10.1016/j.clinph.2011.05.015

Matà S et al., 2011: Anti-myelin associated glycoprotein antibodies recognize HNK-1 epitope on CNS.
J Neuroimmunol 236(1-2): 99-105
DOI: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2011.05.002

Larue S et al., 2011: Non-anti-MAG DADS neuropathy as a variant of CIDP: clinical, electrophysiological, laboratory features and response to treatment in 10 cases.
Eur J Neurol 18(6): 899-905
DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2010.03312.x

Matà S et al., 2011: IgM monoclonal gammopathy-associated neuropathies with different IgM specificity.
Eur J Neurol 18(8): 1067-1073
DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2010.03345.x

Jurici S et al., 2011: An Autopsy Case of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis with Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia and Anti-MAG Gammopathy. Case Rep Neurol 3(3): 294-400
DOI: 10.1159/000335004

Gruson B et al., 2011: Long-term response to rituximab and fludarabine combination in IgM anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein neuropathy. J Peripher Nerv Syst 16(3): 180-185.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8027.2011.00343.x

Théaudin M et al., 2011: Short and long-term effect of IVIg in demyelinating neuropathy associated with MGUS, experience of a monocentric study, Rev Neurol (Paris) 167(12): 897-904
DOI: 10.1016/j.neurol.2011.04.005

Delmont E et al., 2011: Treatment with rituximab in patients with polyneuropathy with anti-MAG antibodies. J Neurol 258(9): 1717-1719
DOI: 10.1007/s00415-011-5994-0

Jaskowsky T D et al., 2007: Further comparisons of assays for detecting MAG IgM autoantibodies.
J Neuroimmunol 187(1-2): 175-178
DOI: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2007.04.015

Steck A et al., 2006: Anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein neuropathy.
Curr Opin Neurol; 19(5): 458-463
DOI: 10.1097/01.wco.0000245368.36576.0d

Renaud S et al., 2006: High-dose rituximab and anti-MAG-associated polyneuropathy.
Neurology 66(5): 742-744
DOI: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000201193.00382.b3

Caudie C et al., 2006: [Diagnostic value of autoantibodies to MAG by ELISA Bühlmann in 117 immune-mediated peripheral neuropathies associated with monoclonal IgM to SGPG/SGLPG].
Ann Biol Clin 64(4): 353-359
PMID: 16829480

Kvarnström M et al., 2002: Myelin protein P0-specific IgM producing monoclonal B cell lines were established from polyneuropathy patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance
(MGUS). Clin Exp Immunol 127(2): 255-262
DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2249.2002.01739.x